완전초급 제16강-방향을 나타내는 전치사들 2
16강 방향을 나타내는 전치사들 2
Most of the uses of on are very near to the physical sense. On the top, on one side, on the same side, on the right side, are all - quite natural. We may be on our feet, on land, or on the water, a coat may be on a hook, a name on a list. Not far from these are the words on one's lips, the trouble on one's mind, the song on one's brain, rules and knowledge based on facts, or the goods on the market.
Music may be on the piano or all on one note and our hair may be on end. An event may take place at 5 on a certain day in a certain week, month, or year. Living on one's income is specially hard when there is a tax on goods.
There are 10 special uses of on, the last of which is the use with go and keep with different operation-words or with, as in go on doing, keep on going, go on with the work, and so on.
In addition, see
act, approval, attack, condition credit, dependent, design, effect, eye, foot, get, hand, hard, impulse, keep, look, nerve, put, record, side, so, watch, work.
The key to the right direction-word in connection with time is "at a point, on a line, In a circle."
1. The light (water, gas, play) is now on.
2. The pictures are on view.
3. I came on purpose to see them.
4. This design is on a great (small) scale.
5. I have a friend on the committee.
6. He is an expert on old prints.
7. He has gone on a journey to the East to get some more.
8. The profit (loss, interest) on his business is chiefly through insurance.
9. Look! The house is on fire!
10. Let us go (keep) on putting water on it. We will go on with the fight till the firemen come.
Though out as a simple direction is the opposite of in, it is not possible to say : "I am in the room and you are 'out it.'" The opposite of being in (or coming into) a place is being (or going) out of it. So we get out of as the opposite of all those uses of in with physical things or places, among which we may put for this purpose, mind; and with these are to be grouped out of control, out of danger, out of hearing, out of touch, out of work
A small number of fixed uses like he went out (of the house or room), or the light (fire) went out (of existence) will be clear enough in the statements in which we come across them.
There are 2 special uses of out.
In addition, see get, go, let, make.
As the natural opposite of under, oven is equally simple and limited in all its chief uses. Some things which are over others may be much farther away from them than the cover which is over the meat, or the fat which is over (or on) the bone. A window may be over a door, or an airplane may be over a house, so that over becomes a more general way of saying 'on top of' or 'higher than' ; and by a simple further development we go over a wall and oven the side of a ship, or a road goes over a mountain.
A very common expansion gives us authority or power over a person; and a number on any scale which is more than another may be said to be over it, so that a person 22 years old is over 21.
There are 3 special uses of over.
When we go through the air, or take breath through the nose, our going and our breathing are made possible by the air and our noses -- much as the hole through which the rat goes is the cause of its getting away. So through comes to have the expansion, as an effect of: he got his position through you, or he made a friend through being ill.
The chief expansions of the simple use of to give very little trouble, and are common in most languages. There are great numbers of words which give us a feeling that to is needed after them. Attention to details is as natural as an addition to the family, an answer to a question, or a right to property.
Another very frequent use of to is for the idea of in relation to. For example, we generally say this line is parallel to that line (though with would be equally possible here), or this amount is equal to that amount. We say this is lined to that, near to that, special to that, or a danger to that ; again, a man may be in debt to, or married to, a woman.
The behavior of a girl to her lover may be a blow to his self-respect, and if she was kind to him at the start a wound to his feelings will be very much harder for him to put up with.
The connection between to and for in a desire for food has been made clear under for.
There are 10 special uses of to, the last of which -- able to (do) -- is in need of a separate note. It will probably become clear if we say first that to is used before an operation-word whenever there is a desire or purpose to do or have something:
He is ready to go.
He is making an attempt to get away.
He has a desire to go up the mountain.
I sent (took, got) him to have some food.
Generally, whenever 'for the purpose of' might be used, to may be put before the operation-word:
He has enough trouble to make him angry.
He has authority to get the baby back.
This is a place to be in for a long time.
It is time to go.
In the same way we say he is able enough to do this; or more frequently and simply, he is able to do this. And from such uses it is not hard to get the expansion he is said (an 'adjective') to be doing this, or he is said to be able to do this. For he has to do this,
To is the only name of a direction which has this sort of special use with the simple form of the 'verb,' which is named the 'infinitive' in books on language.
In addition, see about, addition, angle, as, bit, come, credit, face, from, get, give, go, have, in, let, make, mind, of, put, scale, seed, so, stop, that, way, word.
There is a small number of fixed uses of to with common things -- we go to bed (church, prison, school, sea, work).
But I let (made, saw) him go, as is made clear in the account of let.
That music is not to my taste.
They are dancing to bad music.
The question is not open to argument.
The machines are face to face (back to back).
Your answer is not to the point.
To my surprise and regret, it is still going on.
Bad music is dear to the public.
The chances are 10 to 1 that it will be better in the future.
Most of us are slow to get used to new forms of art.
I was able to make this last use clear earlier.
The idea of being under something is very simple and limited. In all languages its possible expansions are almost all quite straightforward. The position of authority or control is clearly the same as that of the dog which is on top in a fight ; and so we are under a ruler, or under his power, or authority. In the same way we are under the control or direction of a manager, or do our work under him.
The sense of going under, or being under a cloud, or under a person's thumb is not hard to make out, even when seen for the first time ; but we might equally well make use of some other comparison such as being overcome by hard conditions, or with public opinion against one, or under a person's power.
There are 2 special uses of under.
Most of the uses of up do not get far away from the physical direction which is given by going from some point or place to another at a higher level. Water has to come down a slope of some sort to get to the sea, so we go up a river as we go up a mountain. And in the same way we go up and down a scale or a list.
If we take a bit of paper or cloth, or the collar of a coat, and give the edge a turn, it will be turned up or down. By going one step farther materials or bedding may be rolled up.
Up is very freely used where it is not truly necessary, in examples like building up a business. So it frequently has the sense of ' up to the top,' or ' up to some complete form,' or ' up to some natural limit.'
There are 10 special uses of up.
In addition, see get, give, keep, make, put, take.
At school, dressing up was one of my greatest pleasures.
Now, it is hard even to get my overcoat buttoned up.
In a cold country, all one's force is used up in the attempt to keep warm.
Bread has to be cut (broken) up for the birds.
Even if your house is shut (locked) up, the rain may get in.
Yesterday there was ice in the bath and the drains got stopped up.
Get the pipes fixed up again before the spring!
The wet places on the walls will have to be touched up.
There is no need to get worked up about it.
From the use of with = 'together with,' it is a very natural step in most languages to the sense of 'having' or 'making use of.' What we have is with us. So we say a man with a hat, or with wide interests; sand may get mixed with salt ; a story with a purpose may be about a person with authority.
In all forms of agreement, comparison, connection, and competition, the fact that the two sides are said to be in agreement (comparison, connection, or competition), and so, in a sense, are together in that agreement, makes with the right joining word -- even when they are having a fight (an argument, a discussion, angry words) with one another. So we may be in business with anyone ; or when we make use of books we may be rough with them, because the idea of having them (in the hands) and doing something with them is stronger than the sense of to which would make good sense (as in kind to); but in quick with his fingers ( = in the use of his fingers) there is no feeling of to, so with is the most natural connection.
In the same way we give a person a blow with the hand, or with a stick, because hands and sticks are what we have with us and make use of. But frequently by is equally possible, as in a table covered by (with) a cloth.
There are 2 special uses of with.
In addition, see get, go, have, keep, step, touch, up, young.